Major events in the history of Monaco

The origins

  • The Rock was the scene of bloody fighting between Genova’s two main factions: the Ghibellines (on the Emperor’s side) and the Guelphs (faithful to the Pope).
  • 1215 - The Ghibellines build a castle on the site of the present Palace.
  • Histoire Monaco large-05On January 8, 1297, the Guelph, François Grimaldi, gains entry into the castle disguised as a monk. The occasion is commemorated to this day by the two monks, flourishing swords, depicted on the Grimaldi coat of arms. Charles 1st of Grimaldi acquired the lordship of
    Menton in 1346 then of Roquebrune in 1355.
  • 1489 - King Charles VIII of France and the Duke of Savoy recognize the independence of Monaco. In 1525, Monaco falls under Spanish protection.
  • On August 5, 1529, Charles V stays in Monaco on his way to Italy to receive the imperial crown from the Pope.
  • September 14, 1641 - Honoré II and King Louis XIII of France sign the Treaty of Péronne. The Spanish are pushed out. A French alliance is formed. In return, the Prince of Monaco receives certain lands of France: the Duchy of Valentinois, the Viscountcy of Carlat, the Marquisate of Baux, and the Seigniory of Saint Rémy (in Provence).
  • 1698 - Prince Louis I is chosen as French Ambassador to the Holy See of Rome by his godfather, King Louis XIV of France.
  • 1793 - The Principality of Monaco is annexed by France under the name of “Fort Hercule”, and treated like any other “Alpes-Maritimes” town.
  • The Treaty of Paris of May 30, 1814 re-establishes all of the rights of the Grimaldis. The second Treaty of Paris of November 20, 1815 places the Principality under the protection of the King of Sardinia.

Histoire Monaco large-04

  • Foundation in 1856 of the “Société des Bains de Monaco”, precursor to the present “Société des Bains de Mer et du Cercle des Étrangers”.
  • In 1860, Sardinia transfers to France its rights over Menton and Roquebrune.
  • February 2, 1861 - Prince Charles III concedes to France his rights over Menton and Roquebrune. The Principality’s independence is then total and definitive.
  • 1865 - Customs agreement with France. French and Monegasque territories and territorial waters are united in a customs union (there is no frontier between the two countries).
  • 1869 - The Principality’s inhabitants are exempted from personal, land, property, and franchise taxes.
  • 1911 - The Principality establishes its first Constitution.

Modern Era

  • Histoire Monaco large-03 1918 - Treaty with France; approved in 1919 by signatories of the Versailles Treaty. France commits itself to defend the independence, sovereignty and territorial boundaries of the Principality.
  • 1923 - Birth of Prince Rainier III. He is the son of Princess Charlotte and Prince Pierre de Polignac.

Prince Rainier III’s 56-year reign

  • 1949 - Prince Rainier III accedes to the throne (succeeding his grandfather, Prince Louis II);
    – The Principality becomes the 47th member state of the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organisation (UNESCO).
  • 1954 - Convention with France for mutual cooperation and assistance in administrative affairs;
    – Institution of a sales tax (VAT);
    – Creation of a television station in the Principality: Telé Monte-Carlo.
  • Histoire Monaco large-02 1962 - The State’s new Constitution takes effect on December 17.
  • 1963 - Conventions with France: agreements on taxes, customs and mutual assistance.
  • 1966 - The Monegasque State becomes majority shareholder in the Société des Bains de Mer.
  • 1973 - Acquisition by the Monegasque State of the Fontvieille infill site.
  • 1975 - Opening of the Loews Hotel, the Principality’sbiggest hotel, now the Fairmont Monte Carlo.
  • May 10, 1976 - Signature in Monaco of the RA.MOGE project (Agreement for protection of Mediterranean coastal waters) by France, Italy and Monaco.
  • 1979 - Opening of the Centre de Congrès Auditorium, a facility enabling the Principality to host conventions.
  • Histoire Monaco large-01 1981 - The heliport places Monaco just a few minutes from the Côte d’Azur Airport in Nice.
  • 1985 - Inauguration of the Louis-II Stadium, an ultra‑modern facility for all sports.
  • 1992 - Inauguration of the Fontvieille shopping center;
    – Participation of Prince Rainier III in the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
  • May 28, 1993 - The Principality of Monaco joins the United Nations.
  • 1997 - Celebration of the Grimaldi Dynasty’s 700th anniversary.
  • 1999 - Prince Rainier III’s Jubilee.
  • November 1999 - Inauguration of an underground railway station, freeing 3.6 hectares of land for development.
  • July 20, 2000 - Inauguration of the Grimaldi Forum, a Convention Center with 35,000 square meters of exhibition space.
  • October 24, 2002 - Treaty intended to adapt and to confirm the friendly relationships and the cooperation between the Principality of Monaco and the Republic of France.
  • August 26, 2002 - Arrival of the semi-floating harbour wall in Monaco destined to protect the Port from easterly winds and provide berthing for cruise ships.
  • October 5, 2004 - Monaco enters into the Council of Europe as the 46th member state.
  • April 6, 2005 - Prince Rainier III dies in his 81st year.

The reign of H.S.H. Albert II

  • July 12, 2005 - Accession of H.S.H. Prince Albert II.
  • November 8, 2005 - Official visit of H.S.H. Prince Albert II to the Elysée Palace in Paris. Signing the Convention.
  • November 19, 2005 - Investiture of H.S.H. Prince Albert II.
  • December 5, 2005 - Crown Prince Albert II received by Pope Benoit XVI.
  • April 16, 2006 - Prince Albert II plants the Monegasque flag on the North Pole at the end of an expedition with husky dogs on the ice cap.
  • June 27, 2006 - Creation of the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation for the protection of the environment and long-term development.
  • June 20, 2007 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco was elected an Associate Member of the Marine Academy. Admiral Jacques Lanxade, President of the Marine Academy presented the Prince with the Academy’s medal.
  • September 27, 2007 - The Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation and the United Nations Foundation joined forces to promote a diary for global warming.
  • February 21, 2008 - During the UNEP Administration Council Meeting that took place in Monaco, the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, the UN Foundation and the Madrid Club all signed a partnership agreement to mobilise political powers to agree on global action to fight against the effects of climate change.
  • June 3, 2008 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco attended the first day of the OECD Forum, which focused on the theme “Climate Change, Growth and Stability”.
  • July 13, 2008 - First summit meeting for Heads of State and Government to launch The Union for the Mediterranean at the Grand Palais in Paris with Prince Albert II.
  • September 19, 2008 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II and Jean-Louis Borloo attended the inauguration of the new regional train and presided over the signing of an agreement between the Mercantour Park and the Italian Alpi Marittime.
  • October 7, 2008 - Albert II of Monaco visited Barcelone to attend the IUCN World Conservation Congress, where he was welcomed by H.R.H. Prince Felipe of Spain.
  • November 10-11, 2008 - International Conference “The Artic: an observatory to react to the challenge of environmental changes” organised jointly by the French Presidency of the European Union and the Principality of Monaco.
  • February 12, 2009 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II visited the European Parliament in Brussels to attend the “Peace with Water” Conference.
  • June 19, 2009 - Mr Xavier Darcos presented H.S.H. Prince Albert II with the ‘Commandeur de l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques’ award.
  • October 16, 2009 - During his visit to Rome, H.S.H. Prince Albert II was received by His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI for a private audience in the Vatican.
  • October 19, 2009 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II visited the UN to attend the 21st plenary session of the General Assembly, which welcomed the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as an Observer and examined the item on the agenda entitled “Sport for Peace and Development: building a peaceful and better world through sport and the Olympic ideals”.
  • October 20, 2009 - H.S.H. the Sovereign Prince received the Teddy Roosevelt Medal in recognition of his work for environmental conservation.
  • October 23, 2009 - During a trip to the United States, H.S.H. the Sovereign Prince was presented with the “Roger Revelle” award at the University of California in San Diego.
  • January 21, 2010 - Participation of H.S.H. Prince Albert II in the “World Future Energy Summit” in Abu Dhabi.
  • May 10, 2010 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II inaugurated the 39th Congress of the Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM) in Venice.
  • July 1st-2, 2011 - Monaco celebrated the marriage of H.S.H. Prince Albert II to Miss Charlene Wittstock. The young bride then became H.S.H. Princess Charlene of Monaco.