The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state in line with the general principles of international law and of particular agreements passed with France.
The territory of the Principality is inalienable.
The Constitution of December 17th, 1962, defines the Government as a Constitutional Hereditary Monarchy.
Political and administrative structure
The Prince exercises his sovereign authority in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and its laws. He represents the Principality in its relations with foreign powers. Partial or total revision of the Constitution is subject to mutual agreement by the Prince and the National Council. Legislative power is shared between the Head of State who initiates laws, and the National Council which votes them in. Executive power comes from the supreme authority of the Prince; the Government is run by a Minister of State who represents the Prince, himself assisted by a Government Council. The Minister of State and Government Counsellors are responsible to the Prince for the Principality’s administration.
In law, the judiciary power belongs to the Prince. The Constitution states that the Prince fully delegates this to the courts, which administer justice in his name.
The Monegasque government
The Principality is a State of Law, committed to the respect of freedom and fundamental rights. Under the High Authority of the Prince, the executive power is exercised by a Minister of State, assisted by a 5-member Council of Government appointed by the Prince.
Preparation of White Papers
Although legislative initiative belongs to the Prince, the Government Council prepares bills and subjects them to the Prince, signed by the Minister of State.
Conferred with the mission to enforce laws and ensure functioning of public services, the Government has regulatory power to this effect. As with the law, regulatory power consists of decree by general measures.
Two kinds of regulatory acts should be distinguished:
- Sovereign Orders, which are mostly serve the purpose of bringing laws into effect which only come into force when they are signed by the Sovereign and after publication in the Journal de Monaco.
- Ministerial Decrees, which enforce laws and Sovereign Orders and become enforceable within ten days after notice by the Minister, in the absence of explicit opposition by the Prince. Furthermore, the Constitution gives the Minister of State, as well as the Government Counsellors, the high mission to administer the country. As such, the Minister of State controls the executive departments. He commands public forces and is responsible for foreign relations, the police and maintains public order. He oversees the enforcement of orders.
- The National Council
- The Communal Council
- The Crown Council
- The State Council
- The Economic and Social Council
Legislative and budgetary powers are jointly exercised by the Prince and the National Council. The Prince holds the legislative initiative, and the Council of Government prepares the laws’ projects in His name. The National Council votes the laws and national budget. The Prince alone promulgates legislation which is then published in the “Journal de Monaco” for third party appraisal.
Judicial Powers are formally vested in the Prince, but the Sovereign delegates the full exercise of these powers to the Courts and Tribunals, which dispense justice in his name, in complete independence.
Department of Judicial Services
Director: H.E. Mr Philippe Narmino
Lawcourt - 5, rue Colonel-Bellando-de-Castro
Tel. 98 98 88 11.
Secretary-General: Mrs Martine Provence
- A single judge occupies the highest level of the hierarchy: Justice of the Peace for civil matters, or a Police Judge for penal matters.
- Court of First Instance dealing with civil and commercial matters or the Magistrates’ Court dealing with penal matters.
- Court of Appeal, juridiction of common right at the second degree (judgement appeals of the First Instance Court).
- Court of Cassation.
In Criminal Matters
- Examining judge (also competent for penalty affairs).
- Council Chamber.
- Criminal Court (Assizes Court) (The death penalty was abolished in the Principality in 1962).
- Supreme Court of Appeal (Cassation).
- A Special Tribunal (by Princely decree).
- The Supreme Tribunal for constitutional appeals, administrative litigation and appeals concerning judicial jurisdiction.
Several tribunals are specialized in the arbitration of certain disputes (Family, Employment, Rent and Housing, Commercial leases, Dispossession).
In the Principality of Monaco, the Economic Organization is established by the Ministry of Finance and Economy. The Ministry deals with all financial and economic issues related to operations performed by the State. The Ministry of Finance and Economy has a very broad field of action, as all budget related questions are submitted to it. A wide variety of services are linked to the Ministry, for which it oversees operations.
It is in charge of managing public policy connected with the following areas:
- Economy and Trade
- State Property
- Gambling Supervision
- Financial Channel Supervision
- Innovation and new technologies
- Commercial services
Groups playing an economic or social role in the Principality:
- Association Monégasque des Activités Financières (AMAF)
President: Mr Étienne Franzi
General Secretary: Mr Jean Dastakian
7, rue du Gabian - Tel. 97 97 84 97
- Economic Development Chamber of Monaco (CDE)
President: Mr Michel Dotta
Directors: Mr Vincent Lozza, Mrs Elizabeth Ritter-Moati
2, rue de la Lüjerneta - Tel. 97 98 68 68
This association is to promote Monaco abroad and to welcome foreign investors.
- Monegasque Employers’ Federation
President: Mr Philippe Ortelli
20, avenue de Fontvieille - Tel. 92 05 38 92
This department brings together federations or associations in different areas.
- Union of Monegasque Retailers and Craftsmen
President: Mr André Wenden
6, boulevard des Moulins - Tel. 93 30 35 01
- “Industries of Monaco” Economic Syndicate
President: Mr Pascal Gaussin
- GEIT Association
President: Mr Rodolphe Berlin
1, rue du Gabian - Tel. 92 05 21 22
- Junior Chamber International Monaco (JCI Monaco)
1, avenue des Castelans - Tel. +377 92 05 20 19
- Monaco Union of Shopkeepers and Tradesmen of Monaco (UCAM)
President: Mr Pierre Brezzo
20, avenue de Fontvieille - Tel. 93 30 59 66
- Association of Monegasque Unions
General Secretary: Mrs Angèle Braquetti
28, boulevard Rainier-III
Tel. 93 30 19 30 - Fax 93 25 06 73
This is governed by the Department of Social Affairs and Health, which is responsible for the following two services:
- Department of Employment
- Department of Health and Social Affairs
- State Medical Benefits Office
- Secretariat of the Employment Tribunal
Collective relations between employers and employees are governed by a series of “Collective Conventions”. Companies of more than 10 employees have a staff representative.
In companies of more than 40 employees, staff interests may also be represented by unions.
Conflicts at work, for individuals, are dealt at the :
Work Tribunal -
19, avenue des Castelans, Entrée C
Tel. 98 98 88 23
In the case of non-conciliation for a collective conflict, the social partners must defer to an (cassation) of a Superior Court of Arbitrage. Since its establishment in 1948, this procedure has been effective in resolving numerous litigations, without the necessity of strikes.
Social Welfare organisations
The monegasque legislation provides a full range of social protection to workers: sickness, maternity, disability and death insurance; family benefits and allowances; and an overall pension plan.
Salaried workers are also entitled to a complementary french retirement and unemployment
Charges assumed by the employer total approximately 30%, while workers contribute approximately 6.15% to their principal retirement fund. The self-employed also benefit from a sickness and maternity insurance plan as well as a pension fund.
Amount of sickness benefit payments
- Cash benefits (sick pay) 50% of usual salary
- Reimbursement of medical expenses: 80% of the agreed tariff (100% in case of exemption of patient’s contribution).
Child benefits are generally paid from the first child onwards. Monthly allowance for each child (January 1st, 2012):
- Under 3 years 135,80€
- 3 – 6 years 203,70€
- 6 – 10 years 244,50€
- Over 10 years 285,20 €
All natural or legal entities authorised to carry out a professional activity in Monaco and employing salaried staff in the course of their business are obliged to become affiliated with the CCSS, CAR, CAMTI or CARTI. They must do so on the issuing of their authorisation to carry out a professional business in Monaco, and within three days of the effective date of hiring of their first employee. The Department of Employment is the sole contact party in this field. It releases the forms required for setting up the records.